From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Overview of and topical guide to health sciences
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to health sciences:
Health sciences are those sciences which focus on health, or health care, as core parts of their subject matter. Health sciences relate to multiple academic disciplines, including STEM disciplines and emerging patient safety disciplines (such as social care research).
Medicine and its branches
Medicine – applied science or practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. Some of the branches of medicine are:
- Anesthesiology – branch of medicine that deals with life support and anesthesia during surgery.
- Angiology – a branch of medicine that deals with the diseases of the circulatory system.
- Audiology – focuses on preventing and curing hearing damage.
- Bariatrics – the branch of medicine that deals with the causes, prevention, and treatment of obesity
- Cardiology – branch of medicine that deals with disorders of the heart and the blood vessels.
- Critical care medicine – focuses on life support and the intensive care of the seriously ill.
- Dentistry – branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.
- Dermatology – a branch of medicine that deals with the skin, its structure, functions, and diseases.
- Emergency medicine – focuses on care provided in the emergency department.
- Endocrinology – the branch of medicine that deals with disorders of the endocrine system.
- Family medicine – a medical specialty devoted to comprehensive health care for people of all ages.
- Gastroenterology – a branch of medicine that deals with the study and care of the digestive system.
- General Practice (often called Family Medicine) is a branch of medicine that specializes in primary care.
- Geriatrics – the branch of medicine that deals with the general health and well-being of the elderly.
- Gynecology – a branch of medicine that deals with the health of the female reproductive systems and the breasts.
- Hematology – branch of medicine that deals with the blood and the circulatory system.
- Hepatology – branch of medicine that deals with the liver, gallbladder and the biliary system.
- Infectious disease – the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and management of infectious disease, especially for complex cases and immunocompromised patients.
- Kinesiology – the scientific study of human or non-human body movement.
- Laboratory medicine – a branch of medicine that deals with diagnostic laboratory examinations and tests and their interpretation what makes in a medical laboratory.
- Medical physics – the branch of medicine and science that deals with applications of physics concepts, theories, and methods to medicine or health care.
- Neurology – a branch of medicine that deals with the brain and the nervous system.
- Nephrology – a branch of medicine which deals with the kidneys.
- Oncology – branch of medicine that studies of cancer.
- Ophthalmology – the branch of medicine that deals with the eyes.
- Orthopedics – branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system
- Otolaryngology – branch of medicine that deals the ears, nose and throat.
- Pathology – the study of diseases, and the causes, processes, nature, and development of the disease.
- Pediatrics – the branch of medicine that deals with the general health and well-being of children.
- Pharmacy – the art and practice of preparing, preserving, compounding, and dispensing medical drugs
- Pharmacology – study and practical application of preparation, use, and effects of drugs and synthetic medicines.
- Public health and preventive medicine – branch of medicine concerned with the health of populations.
- Pulmonology – the branch of medicine that deals with the respiratory system.
- Psychiatry – a branch of medicine that deals with the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders.
- Clinical psychology Health discipline concerned with the biopsychosocial study of the mind, brain, behavior and the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of psychological disorders.
- Radiology – the branch of medicine that employs medical imaging to diagnose and treat disease.
- Rheumatology – a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic diseases.
- Splanchnology – the branch of medicine that deals with visceral organs.
- Surgery – a branch of medicine that uses operative techniques to investigate or treat both disease and injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance.
- Urology – the branch of medicine that deals with the urinary system and the male reproductive system.
- Veterinary medicine – a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, disorder, and injury in nonhuman/animals.
History of health sciences
General health sciences concepts
Source link Health sciences, also referred to as biomedical sciences, are a broad field that encompasses various different disciplines within the medical field, including medical anthropology, microbiology, nursing, nutrition, pharmacology, public health, and public policy. Health sciences are the foundation of modern medical practice.
The field of health sciences is vast and complex, with a variety of specializations and sub-specializations. These range from anatomy and physiology to epidemiology and biotherapy. Health sciences studies the physical, mental and environmental impact of health on individuals, families and populations. Health sciences seek to improve human health by discovering and applying new treatments, techniques, and technologies.
Medical anthropology is a discipline that focuses on the relationship between health and human culture. It looks at the ways in which cultures act as determinants of health status, in terms of resources, beliefs and practices, and the impact of culture on health.
Microbiology is the study of microscopic life, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Microbiology focuses on the structure, metabolism, and genetics of microorganisms, as well as their role in infectious diseases.
Nursing is a health profession that provides primary and specialized care to patients, families and communities. Nurses provide compassionate and professional care for individuals and families in a variety of settings, including hospitals, private practices, clinics, and home care settings.
Nutrition is the science of the components of food and how they are used by the body for growth, repair and energy. Nutrition focuses on the types of foods, proportions and amounts that are needed to maintain a healthy lifestyle.
Pharmacology is the study of the effects of drugs on living systems. It focuses on the therapeutic applications and interactions of medications, as well as methods for detecting, preventing and managing drug-related adverse effects.
Public health is a diverse and interdisciplinary field that focuses on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of health problems at a community or population level, rather than at the individual level. Public health includes the work of epidemiologists, who study patterns of health and illness in populations, as well as specialists like nutritionists, who promote healthy living.
Public policy focuses on the formulation, implementation and evaluation of policies that have an effect on public health. It includes the work of health economists and policy analysts, who examine the economic, social, and political factors that shape health policy.
Health sciences are an important part of the process of improving human health and well-being. Health sciences use research and evidence-based approaches to contribute to the identification of health problems, the development of appropriate solutions, and the achievement of desired health outcomes.